Should Christians Judge? — Paradigm Shift


Christians sometimes get confused with the concept of judging. Biblically we are commanded to judge (John 7:24 says, “Stop judging by mere appearances, and make it right judgement”). Then at the same time we are biblically told that we are not to …

via Should Christians Judge? — Paradigm Shift

Song of Solomon 1:4 (NET) w/notes | Faithlife Bible


Song of Solomon 1:4

1:4 Draw me18 after you; let us hurry!19

May the king20 bring21 me into his22 bedroom chambers!23

The Maidens24 to the Lover:

We will25 rejoice and delight in you;26

we will praise27 your love more than wine.

The Beloved to Her Lover:

How rightly28 the young women29 adore you!

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18sn The verb מָשַׁךְ (mashakh, “draw”) is a figurative expression (hypocatastasis) which draws an implied comparison between the physical acting of leading a person with the romantic action of leading a person in love. Elsewhere it is used figuratively of a master gently leading an animal with leather cords (Hos 11:4) and of a military victor leading his captives (Jer 31:3). The point of comparison might be that the woman wants to be the willing captive of the love of her beloved, that is, a willing prisoner of his love.
19tn The three verbs in this line are a good example of heterosis of person, that is, a shift from 2nd person masculine singular to 1st person common plural to 3rd person masculine singular forms: מָשְׁכֵנִי (mashékheni, “draw me!”; Qal imperative 2nd person masculine singular from מָשַׁךְ, mashakh, “to draw” + 1st person common singular suffix:), נָּרוּצָה (narutsah, “let us run!”; Qal cohortative 1st person common plural from רוּץ, ruts, “to run”), and הֱבִיאַנִי (hevi’ani, “he has brought me” or “bring me!”; Hiphil perfect 3rd person masculine singular בּוֹא, bo’, “to bring” + 1st person common singular suffix). Heterosis from second to third person occurs elsewhere in the Song in 1:2–34:26:6 (e.g, Gen 49:4Deut 32:15Ps 23:2–5Isa 1:2942:2054:1Jer 22:24Amos 4:1Micah 7:19Lam 3:1).
20tn Or “O king, bring me into your chambers!” The article on the noun הַמֶּלֶךְ (hammelekh, “the king”) may be taken in two ways: (1) the particularizing use of the article: “The king” (e.g., NIV: “The king has brought me into his chambers”) or (2) the vocative use of the article: “O king!” (NJPS margin: “O king, bring me into your chambers!”) (For the vocative use of the article, see GKC 405 §126.eJoüon 2:506–7 §137.f; R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 19, §89; IBHS 247 §13.5.2c). The syntactical classification of the article is dependent upon: (1) Whether the MT reading of the 3rd person masculine singular suffix on חֲדָרָיו (khadarav, “his chambers”) is retained or whether the text is emended to the 2nd person masculine singular suffix form חַדְרֶךָ (khadrekha, “your chamber”) as reflected in Syriac (see textual note below). (2) Whether הֱבִיאַנִי (hevi’ani, Hiphil perfect 3rd person masculine singular from בּוֹא, bo’, “to bring” + 1st person common singular suffix) is classified as a perfect of past action (“The king has brought me into his chambers”) or a precative perfect (“O king, bring me into your chambers!”) (see syntactical note below). (3) Whether the consonantal form הביאני should be vocalized as הֱבִיאַנִי (hevi’ani, Hiphil perfect 3rd person masculine singular + 1st person common singular suffix) as preserved in MT or as הֲבִיאֵנִי (havi’eni, Hiphil imperative 2nd person masculine singular + 1st person common singular suffix) as reflected in Symmachus and Syriac (see textual note below).
21tn Or “has brought me.” The verb הֱבִיאַנִי (hevi’ani, Hiphil perfect 3rd person masculine singular בּוֹא, bo’, “to bring” + 1st person common singular suffix) may be classified in two ways: (1) perfect of past action: “The king has brought me into his chambers” or (2) precative perfect: “May the king bring me into his chambers!” (J. S. Deere, “Song of Solomon,” BKCOT1012). While some older grammarians denied the existence of the precative (volitional) function of the perfect in Hebrew (e.g., S. R. Driver, Tenses in Hebrew, 25–26; GKC 312–13 §106.n, n. 2), its existence is accepted in more recent grammars (e.g., IBHS 494–95 §30.5.4dJoüon 2:365 §112.k). While the perfect of past action is the more common use of the perfect, the context suggests the more rare precative. As IBHS 494–95 §30.5.4d notes, the precative can be recognized contextually by its parallelism with the other volitive forms. The parallelism of precative הֱבִיאַנִי (“bring me!”) with the volitives in the two preceding parallel colons—מָשְׁכֵנִי (mashékheni, “draw me!”; Qal imperative 2nd person masculine singular from משַׁךְ, mashakh, “to draw” + 1st person common singular suffix:) and נָּרוּצָה (narutsah, “let us run!”; Qal cohortative 1st person common plural from רוּץ, ruts, “to run”)—favors the precative function of the perfect. The volitive function of consonantal הביאני is reflected in Syriac. The BHS editors suggest revocalizing MT to הֲבִיאֵנִי “bring me!” The precative function of the perfect הֱבִיאַנִי may explain the origin of this variant vocalization tradition reflected in Syriac. In terms of connotation, the precative functions as a volitive as an example of the irreal modal or optative function of the perfect (IBHS 494–95 §30.5.4dJoüon 2:365 §112.k). In contrast to the use of the irreal perfect for situations which the speaker expresses as a wish without expectation of fulfillment (contrary-to-fact situations, hypothetical assertions, and expressions of a wish that is not expected to be realized), the precative refers to situations the speaker expresses his desire for and expects to be realized (IBHS 494–95 §30.5.4d). It is used most often in contexts of prayers to God which the speakers expect to be answered (e.g., Pss 3:822:2231:5–6). Here, she expresses her desire that her lover consummate their love in his bedroom chambers; she expects this desire to be realized one day (e.g., 4:1–5:1). There are, however, several problems with nuancing the form as a precative: (a) this would demand emending MT חֲדָרָיו (khadarav, “his chambers”) to חַדְרֶךָ (khadrekha, “your chamber[s]”)—which is, however, reflected by Syriac Peshitta and Symmachus, and (b) it would demand nuancing the article on הַמֶּלֶךְ (hammelekh) as a vocative (“O king!”).
22tc The MT reads the 3rd person masculine singular suffix on a plural noun חֲדָרָיו (khadarav, “his chambers”). This is reflected in LXX, Targums, and Vulgate. However, the 2nd person masculine singular suffix on a singular noun חַדְרֶךָ (khadrekha, “your chambers”) is reflected by Syriac Peshitta and Symmachus. See preceding note on the text-critical significance of these variant readings.
23tn The term חֶדֶר (kheder, “chamber”) is used frequently in reference to a bedroom (Gen 43:30Judg 15:116:92 Sam 13:101 Kgs 1:15Ps 105:30Isa 26:20). It refers explicitly to a bedroom when used with the noun מִשְׁכָּב (mishkav, “bed”) in the expression חֶדֶר מִשְׁכָּב “bedroom chamber” (Exod 7:282 Sam 4:72 Kgs 6:12Eccl 10:20). The plural form חֲדָרָיו (khadarav, “his chambers”) functions as a plural of extension rather than a plural or number; it refers to one bedroom composed of several parts rather than referring to several different bedrooms. The expression “Bring me into your chambers” is a metonymy of cause for effect, that is, her desire for lovemaking in his bedroom chambers.
24sn Normally in the Song, the person/gender of the pronouns and suffixes makes the identify of the speaker or addressee clear. However, there are several places in which there is grammatical ambiguity that makes it difficult to identify either the speaker or the addressee (e.g., 6:11–137:9b). This is particularly true when 1st person common plural or 3rd person common plural verbs or suffixes are present (1:3[4]; 2:155:1b8:8–9), as is the case in the three lines of 1:3b[4b]. There are four views to the identity of the speaker(s): (1) NASB attributes all three lines to the maidens, (2) NIV attributes the first two lines to the friends and the third line to the Beloved (= woman), (3) NJPS attributes all three lines to the Beloved, speaking throughout 1:2–4, and (4) The first line could be attributed to the young man speaking to his beloved, and the last two lines attributed to the Beloved who returns praise to him. The referents of the 1st person common plural cohortatives and the 2sg suffixes have been taken as: (1) the maidens of Jerusalem, mentioned in 1:4[5] and possibly referred to as the 3rd person common plural subject of אֲהֵבוּךָ (’ahevukha, “they love you”) in 1:3b[4b], using the 1st person common plural cohortatives in reference to themselves as they address her lover: “We (= maidens) will rejoice in you (= the young man).” (2) The Beloved using 1st person common plural cohortatives in a hortatory sense as she addresses her lover: “Let us (= the couple) rejoice in you (= the young man), let us praise your lovemaking …” (3) The Beloved using the 1st person common plural cohortatives in reference to herself—there are examples in ancient Near Eastern love literature of the bride using 1st person common plural forms in reference to herself (S. N. Kramer, The Sacred Marriage Rite, 92, 99)—as she addresses the young man: “We (= I) will rejoice in you (= the young man).” Note: This problem is compounded by the ambiguity of the gender on בָּךְ (bakh, “in you”) which appears to be 2nd person feminine singular but may be 2nd person masculine singular in pause (see note below).
25tn Alternately, “Let us rejoice and delight in you.” There is debate whether the cohortatives נָגִילָה (nagilah, Qal cohortative 1st person common plural from גִּיל, gil, “to exult”), וְנִשְמְחָה (vénishmékhah, Qal cohortative 1st person common plural from שָמַח, shamakh, “to rejoice”) and נַזְכִּירָה (nazkirah, Hiphil cohortative 1st person common plural from זָכַר, zakhar, “to praise”) should be classified as (1) cohortatives of resolve, expressing the resolution or determination of the speakers to adopt or accomplish a course of action: “We will rejoice … we will delight … we will praise” (e.g., KJVNASBNIV) or (2) hortatory cohortatives, exhorting others to join in doing something: “Let us rejoice … let us delight … let us praise” (e.g., NJPS).
26tn A shift occurs in 1:4 from 1st person common singular forms to 1st person common plural forms: “Draw me (מָשְׁכֵנִי, mashékeni) … Let us run (נּרוּצָה, narutsah) … Bring me (הֱבִיאַנִי, hevi’ani) … We will be glad (נָגִילָה, nagilah) … We will rejoice in you (וְנִשְׁמְחָה, vénishmékhah) … We will remember (נַזְכִּירָה, nazkirah) … They love you (אֲהֵבוּךָ, ’ahevukha).…” Several translations and many commentators end the words of the Beloved at 1:4a and begin the words of the Friends in 1:4b and revert back to the words of the Beloved in 1:4c. The subject of the 1st person common plural forms may be the “young women” (עֲלָמוֹת) previously mentioned in 1:3. This is supported by the fact that in 1:3 the Beloved says, “The young women love you” (עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ, ’alamot ’ahevukha) and in 1:4c she again says, “Rightly do they [the young women] love you” (מֵישָׁרִים אֲהֵבוּךָ, mesharim ’ahevukha). On the other hand, in ANE love literature the bride often uses plural pronouns to refer to herself (S. N. Kramer, The Sacred Marriage Rite, 92, 99). Some commentators suggest that the young man is addressing his beloved because בָּךְ (bakh) appears to have a 2nd person feminine singular suffix. However, the suffix on בָּךְ is in pause (after the accent) therefore, the normal 2nd person masculine singular suffix בָּךָ has reduced to shewa. The parallelism with the 2nd person masculine singular suffix on דֹדֶיךָ (dodekha, “your love”) supports the 2nd person masculine singular classification.
27tn Alternately, “remember.” The verb נַזְכִּירָה (nazkirah, Hiphil imperfect 1st person common plural from זָכַר, zakhar) is traditionally rendered “we will remember” (KJV), but is better nuanced “we will extol” (NASB) or “we will praise” (NIV). The verb זָכַר has a wide range of meanings: “to remember, call to mind” (Gen 8:1Deut 24:9Judg 8:34), “to name, mention” (Jer 20:923:3631:20Pss 63:777:4), “to summon, command” (Nah 2:6), “to swear by” (Amos 6:101 Chr 16:4), and “to praise, extol” (Exod 23:13Josh 23:7Pss 45:1871:16Isa 26:1348:162:6). The Hiphil stem has four denotations, and “to remember” is not one of them: (1) “to take to court,” (2) “to mention,” (3) “to make known,” and (4) “to praise, profess” (HALOT 269–70 s.v. I זכר). NJPS offers a poetic nuance that plays upon the wine motif: “savoring it more than wine.”
28tn Alternately, “The righteous love you.” Scholars debate whether מֵישָׁרִים (mesharim) should be taken as a substantive (“the righteous”), abstract noun (“righteousness”), or adverb (“rightly”). The LXX’s εὐθύτης ἠγάπησεν σε (euthutēs ēgapēsen, “righteousness loves you”) is awkward. The adverbial sense is preferred for several reasons: (1) The verb אֲהֵבוּךָ (’ahevuka, “they love you”) in 1:4c is repeated from 1:3c where it was used in reference to the maiden’s love for her lover. (2) There is no group designated as “the righteous” elsewhere in the Song. (3) To introduce an additional party into this poetic unit is unnecessary when it can be easily understood as a reference to the maidens of 1:3c.
29tn Heb “they love you.” The words “the young women” do not appear in the Hebrew but are supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity. The shift from the 1st person common plural subjects in the three cohortatives—נָגִילָה (nagilah, Qal cohortative 1st person common plural from גּיל, gil, “to exult”), וְנִשְׂמְחָה (vénishmékhah, Qal cohortative 1st person common plural from שָמַח, shamakh, “to rejoice”), and נַזְכִּירָה (nazkirah, Hiphil cohortative 1st person common plural from זָכַר, zakhar, “to praise”)—to the 3rd person common plural subject in the verb אֲהֵבוּךָ (’ahevukha, Qal perfect 3rd person common plural from אָהֵב, ’ahev, “to love” + 2nd person masculine singular suffix) suggests to many scholars that a shift in speakers occurs at this point: the maidens praise the young man in the first two lines, while the Beloved affirms the appropriateness of their praise in the last line (e.g., NIV). However, the shift in person might simply be another example of heterosis of person (as already seen in 1:2–4a)—this time from first person to third person. Thus, the shift in grammatical person does not necessarily indicate a shift in speakers. It is possible that the maidens are speaking throughout all three lines, and that the third line should be nuanced, “How rightly we love you!”

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Prepare for BSF’s People of the Promise: Kingdom Divided


Hey all! Are you as excited as I am about BSF’s study People of the Promise: Kingdom United? There is always something special about a brand new study that Bible Study Fellowship embarks on. One great way to prepare for this study is to engage in BSF’s special devotional developed with this study in mind. […]

Prepare for BSF’s People of the Promise: Kingdom Divided

Mark 13:3-7


Brisco, T. V. (1998). Holman Bible atlas (p. 235). Broadman & Holman Publishers.

Mark 13:3–7 (LDGNT)
3Καὶ καθημένου αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ Ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν κατέναντι τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἐπηρώτα αὐτὸν κατʼ ἰδίαν Πέτρος καὶ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωάννης καὶ Ἀνδρέας
4Εἰπὸν ἡμῖν πότε ταῦτα ἔσται καὶ τί τὸ σημεῖον ὅταν μέλλῃ ταῦτα συντελεῖσθαι πάντα
5ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἤρξατο λέγειν αὐτοῖς Βλέπετε μή τις ὑμᾶς πλανήσῃ
6πολλοὶ ἐλεύσονται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου λέγοντες ὅτι Ἐγώ εἰμι καὶ πολλοὺς πλανήσουσιν
7ὅταν δὲ ἀκούσητε πολέμους καὶ ἀκοὰς πολέμων μὴ θροεῖσθε δεῖ γενέσθαι ἀλλʼ οὔπω τὸ τέλος

A stand of old olive trees in the traditional Garden of Gethsemane.

Brisco, T. V. (1998). Holman Bible atlas (p. 235). Broadman & Holman Publishers.

UBS Handbook Mark (Greek Text Commentary)

Mark 13:3

Exegesis kathēmenou autou ‘while he was sitting’ (cf. v. 1).

eis to oros tōn elaiōn ‘on the Mount of Olives’: here eis ‘into’ is clearly equivalent to en ‘in’ (cf. Arndt & Gingrich eis 9.a), with the meaning ‘at,’ ‘on’ (cf. Arndt & Gingrich en I 1.b). (Though this use of eis might have some bearing on the meaning of eis in 1:10, it should be noticed that the verb there denotes motion, while here it denotes rest.)

to oros tōn elaiōn (cf. 11:1) ‘the Mount of Olives.’

For katenanti ‘opposite.’ ‘in front of’ cf. 11:2; kat’ idian ‘privately’ cf. 4:34.

Translation For Mount of Olives see 11:1.

Opposite the temple is translatable in many instances as ‘facing the temple’ or ‘on the opposite side of the ravine from the temple.’

Privately may be rendered as ‘when they were alone with him.’

Mark 13:4

Exegesis pote (cf. 9:19) ‘when?’

tauta ‘these things’: refers back to the statement that not one stone of the Temple would be left standing on another. In the next clause tauta panta ‘all these things’ would appear to include more than the single tauta of the first clause. A reasonable explanation is offered by Lagrange who takes ‘all these things’ to refer to everything connected with the destruction of the Temple, the destruction itself being only one of a series of events. The second question, then, represents an expansion of the first one, in normal Semitic style.

sēmeion (cf. 8:11) ‘sign’: here in the sense of a ‘token’ or ‘indication’ pointing to the events referred to. In this context the ‘sign’ asked for would be an indication that the events were about to take place.

hotan mellē tauta sunteleisthai panta ‘when all these things are about to be accomplished.’

hotan (cf. 11:19) ‘when’: indicates one single event.

mellō (cf. 10:32) ‘about to be,’ ‘on the point of’ (cf. Arndt & Gingrich 1.c.a).

sunteleō (only here in Mark) ‘to fulfil,’ ‘accomplish’: the meaning ‘come to an end’ is suggested as possible here by Arndt & Gingrich 1.

Translation Tell us may require a shift to ‘answer us,’ since questions follow.

This, which is an ambiguous or obscure reference, may require a translation by ‘what you said’ (Tzeltal) if the meaning is to be intelligible.

For sign see 8:11.

Accomplished is translatable only as ‘happen’ in some languages.

Mark 13:5

Exegesis blepete (cf. 8:15) ‘beware!’ ‘caution!’ ‘watch out!’ Moulton & Milligan give examples from the papyri showing that this use of the verb blepō ‘see’ was not purely Semitic, but was Greek as well.

mē tis humas planēsē ‘lest any one deceive you,’ ‘that no one lead you astray.’

planaō (cf. 12:24) in the active, as here, ‘cause to err,’ ‘lead astray,’ ‘deceive.’

Translation Leads you astray is equivalent to ‘deceive,’ or as in some languages ‘cause you to believe a lie.’

Mark 13:6

Exegesis epi tō onomati mou (cf. 9:37) ‘in my name’: some difficulty arises from the fact that the phrase ordinarily means ‘on my account,’ ‘for my sake,’ ‘in my behalf’; here, however, it seems to demand the meaning, ‘representing to be me,’ ‘as though they were I,’ since they will say, “I am he.” Arndt & Gingrich (onoma I.4.c.e) suggest ‘using my name’; ‘in my name’ is the reading of most English translations (cf. Vulgate in nomine meo); Lagrange has sous mon nom. Notwithstanding the difficulty, some such translation as RSV ‘in my name,’ or ‘under my name,’ will probably convey the meaning without involving the statement in any contradiction.

hoti ‘that’ introduces direct statement.

egō eimi literally ‘I am’ or ‘It is I’ (cf. 6:50); here, clearly, a claim to be the Messiah—‘I am He’ (cf. 14:62), or, in accordance with Marcan language, ‘I am the Son of man’ (cf. v. 26).

Translation For the use of in my name see 9:37, but in this context a special rendering is often required, e.g. ‘making use of my name,’ ‘calling themselves by my name,’ or ‘applying my name to themselves.’

I am he is sometimes very ambiguous, especially as this expression is spoken by Jesus. Hence, ‘I am the Christ’ or ‘I am the Son of man’ is a much closer equivalent. In languages which generally prefer an indirect form of discourse, this statement may be less ambiguous, e.g. ‘they will say that they are I,’ or ‘they will say that they are what I am.’

A further complication may be found in the shift from plural to singular in the form of the direct discourse, e.g. ‘many will come …, each will say, I am he.’ Moreover, the plural of ‘many’ must be interpreted as distributive, not as collective, for each person claims for himself the Messiahship.

For lead many astray see the previous verse.

Mark 13:7

Text After dei ‘it is necessary’ Textus Receptus, Soden, Vogels, Merk add gar ‘for,’ which is omitted by the majority of modern editions of the Greek text.

Exegesis polemous kai akoas polemōn ‘wars and reports of wars’: akoas is probably not to be taken in the sense of false rumors,’ but rather with the meaning of ‘reports,’ ‘news.’ Manson translates ‘sounds of battles close at hand and news of battles far away’ (cf. Lagrange les guerres prochaines et les guerres éloignées).

polemos (only here in Mark) ‘war,’ ‘battle.’

akoē (cf. 1:28) ‘report,’ ‘message.’

mē throeisthe ‘do not be alarmed’: the verb throeō (only here in Mark) appears in the N.T. only in the passive, meaning ‘be disturbed,’ ‘be frightened.’

dei genesthai ‘it is necessary (that these things) happen,’ ‘it must be.’

dei (cf. 8:31) ‘it is necessary.’

to telos (cf. 3:26) ‘the end’: in this context it refers to the end of the age (cf. Arndt & Gingrich 1.b, “the final act in the cosmic drama”).

Translation Many translators have distinguished between wars and rumors of wars as wars now in progress and rumors about wars that threaten, e.g. ‘wars that have started and wars that shall come, so they shall say.’ However, the word rumors is to be understood more in the sense of ‘report’ or ‘information about’ rather than in the meaning of ‘rumor’ or ‘gossip’; hence ‘wars near and far’ is a closer equivalent of the Greek text.

This must take place involves a generic use of this to refer to all the wars, but in other languages ‘wars’ may require a plural reference, e.g. ‘these must happen.’

The end is an extremely difficult expression to translate. In the first place, it is impossible in many languages to talk about ‘the end.’ One can only speak of ‘the end of something.’ In other languages end must be translated as a verb, since in this passage one is not speaking of a point of an object, e.g. ‘the end of a stick’ or ‘the end of one’s finger,’ but of a process of termination. The equivalent expression in such a language may be ‘everything has not yet come to an end’ (or ‘terminated’). Where, however, one can use ‘end’ as a noun, though with obligatory possession, it is possible to say ‘the end of everything,’ or ‘the end of all happenings,’ or ‘the end of the age.’

Bratcher, R. G., & Nida, E. A. (1993). A handbook on the Gospel of Mark (pp. 397–400). United Bible Societies.

ESV Translation

Mark 13:3–7 (ESV)

Signs of the End of the Age

3And as he sat on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately,
4“Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign when all these things are about to be accomplished?”
5And Jesus began to say to them, “See that no one leads you astray.
6Many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am he!’ and they will lead many astray.
7And when you hear of wars and rumors of wars, do not be alarmed. This must take place, but the end is not yet.

The Holy Bible: English Standard Version (Mk 13:3). (2016). Crossway Bibles.

IVP Background Commentary

13:1. Greek texts often portray Greek philosophical teachers conversing with their disciples while strolling about; this may have been a common teaching technique.


The temple complex consisted of many buildings and was one of the largest, most magnificent structures in the ancient world; it was twice the size of Solomon’s temple. Construction had begun under Herod the Great before Jesus’ birth and was still continuing at this time. Jewish people all over the world contributed to the temple, and so much was received that officials kept adding on to a golden vine that was part of its ostentatious glory. It was sacred to Herod’s enemies as well as to his allies.


13:2. In A.D. 70, the Romans destroyed the temple. The wording here is only slightly hyperbolic: some stones remained in place, but most of the temple was obliterated. As exemplified in the Dead Sea Scrolls, some other groups also expected God to judge the temple authorities; but no one before A.D. 66 was as accurate concerning the timing as Jesus was (13:30).


13:3–4. Although Greek teachers often instructed their pupils while walking, they also often instructed them while sitting in front of a temple. The disciples question to Jesus about the sign of the temple’s destruction sets the scene for Jesus’ answer in the rest of the chapter, in which he describes both the imminent end of the Jerusalemites’ world and the ultimate end of the age.

13:5–8
Not Yet the End

13:5–6. False messiahs were common and often drew significant Jewish followings in Palestine as late as Bar Kochba, whom Rabbi Akiba hailed as the Messiah around A.D. 130.
13:7–8. Ancient Jewish prophecy teachers usually listed these events among the signs of the end; the end was often portrayed as preceded by great sufferings or a final war, and was sometimes compared with birth pangs. Jesus says that instead these events characterize normal life until the end; history until the final time is only the beginning of birth pangs.

Keener, C. S. (1993). The IVP Bible background commentary: New Testament (Mk 13:1–8). InterVarsity Press.