Christianity came to Rome through the Synagogue, likely from Jews who heard the gospel while in Jerusalem as early as Pentecost. Paul wrote Romans in the second half of the 50s to already existing congregations which have separated from the synagogues or were formed outside of the synagogues of Rome.
Jewish population Rome began as early as the Hasmonean delegation to Rome in 161 B.C.E, but grew rapidly after 63 B.C.E., many Jews prospered and gained freedom and citizenship. They were located in the Transtiberinum, Campus Martius, the Suburba, and Ostia (Rome’s port-city) by the first century.
Thirteen synagogues (five for certain, eight debated based on inscriptions) have been identified from the second and third centuries B.C.E., named for the most part after persons or the location, such as Augustus or Agrippa, possibly the Herodians. Synagogues were small ethnic enclaves and collegia organizations. Evidence for the church developing out of…
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