19 June 1269: Louis IX issues fine against Jews found not wearing identifying badge
France. (Saint) Louis IX of France orders all Jews found in public without a badge (French: rouelle or roue, Latin: rota) to be fined ten livres of silver. The enforcement of wearing the badge is repeated by local councils, with varying degrees of fines, at Arles 1234 and 1260, Béziers 1246, Albi 1254, Nîmes 1284 and 1365, Avignon 1326 and 1337, Rodez 1336, and Vanves 1368.
On June 19, 1269, King Louis IX of France ordered all Jews to wear a badge identifying themselves as Jewish whenever they were in public. Those found not wearing the badge, a red or yellow circle known as a “rouelle”, were fined ten livres of silver. Similar edicts, requiring Jewish Europeans to wear distinctive badges, clothing, or hats, were common in medieval Europe; the Fourth Lateran Council offered as a…
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