“The Lord said to Moses, “When you return to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders I have given you the power to do. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go.22 Then say to Pharaoh, ‘This is what the Lord says: Israel is my firstborn son,23 and I told you, “Let my son go, so he may worship me.” But you refused to let him go; so I will kill your firstborn son.’”
The story of Moses and the exodus from Egypt includes multiple references to the hardening of Pharaoh’s heart. Verses 4:21, 7:3, 9:12, 10:1, 10:20, 10:27, 11:10, 14:4, 14:8, 14:17 states that God heartened Pharaoh’s heart. Verses 7:13, 7:14, 7:22, 8:15, 8:19, 8:32, 9:7, 9:34, 9:35, 13:15 indicates that the King hardened his own heart.
This points to the providence of an All-Knowing…
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