Matthew 12:9–14 (LDGNT)
9Καὶ μεταβὰς ἐκεῖθεν ἦλθεν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν αὐτῶν
10καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος χεῖρα ἔχων ξηράν καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν λέγοντες Εἰ ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν θεραπεῦσαι ἵνα κατηγορήσωσιν αὐτοῦ
11ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τίς ἔσται ἐξ ὑμῶν ἄνθρωπος ὃς ἕξει πρόβατον ἓν καὶ ἐὰν ἐμπέσῃ τοῦτο τοῖς σάββασιν εἰς βόθυνον οὐχὶ κρατήσει αὐτὸ καὶ ἐγερεῖ
12πόσῳ οὖν διαφέρει ἄνθρωπος προβάτου ὥστε ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν καλῶς ποιεῖν
13τότε λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ Ἔκτεινόν σου τὴν χεῖρα καὶ ἐξέτεινεν καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ὑγιὴς ὡς ἡ ἄλλη
14ἐξελθόντες δὲ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι συμβούλιον ἔλαβον κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν
Lexham English Bible
Matthew 12:9–14 (LEB)
9And going on from there he came into their synagogue.
10And behold, there was a man who had a withered hand, and they asked him, saying, “Is it permitted to heal on the Sabbath?” in order that they could accuse him.
11But he said to them, “What man will there be among you who will have one sheep and if this one fell into a pit on the Sabbath, will not take hold of it and lift it out?
12Then to what degree is a man worth more than a sheep? So then, it is permitted to do good on the Sabbath.”
13Then he said to the man, “Stretch out your hand,” and he stretched it out, and it was restored as healthy as the other one.
14But the Pharisees went out and plotted against him in order that they could destroy him.
Lexham Context Commentary
Controversy Over Sabbath Healing (12:9–14)
This paragraph follows the last in narrating a controversy over the Sabbath between Jesus and the Pharisees. The desire to condemn Jesus is clearly stated, as they ask Jesus whether it is permitted to heal on the Sabbath. Jesus responds by pointing to the worthiness of someone to be healed, and doing something good is thus permitted. Jesus then heals the man with the withered hand. At this point in the narrative the Pharisees are now purposefully seeking to destroy Jesus.
12:9 The evangelist indicates a sequence from the previous episode to this one, although no passage of time is indicated. Jesus enters a local synagogue that is governed by the Pharisees who questioned him in the previous passage.
12:10 The attention-getter “behold” draws attention to the man who has a withered hand. Unlike some previous healings, this man is not in an emergency situation. The Pharisees wish to find grounds for accusation against Jesus and so ask whether it is permitted to heal on the Sabbath.
12:11 In response to the Pharisees’ question in the previous verse, Jesus offers the analogy of a sheep falling into a pit on the Sabbath. In that scenario, it is reasonable for a man to lift the sheep out, even on the Sabbath.
12:12 From the analogy of the previous verse, Jesus reminds them of the value of human beings over sheep (6:26; 10:31). From this Jesus derives the principle that it is permitted to do good on the Sabbath.
12:13 To emphasize his teaching from the previous verses, Jesus tells the man to stretch out his hand. The man does so, and his formerly withered hand has been completely restored.
12:14 The disapproval of the Pharisees has been building up to this point (9:11, 34; 12:1–8). Now, rather than praising God for the act of healing, the Pharisees depart the synagogue and plot together to destroy Jesus.
Mangum, D. (Ed.). (2020). Lexham Context Commentary: New Testament (Mt 12:9–14). Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.